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    Valves — welded or connected steel rods filled with concrete which, when working with concrete in concrete structures perceive tensile stress (although can also be used to reinforce concrete in the compressed zone).

    There are a working valve that is installed in a construction of convenience, as well as assembly and distribution, which are installed by design considerations and are intended to form, together with the work of the carcass reinforcement and meshes.

    It is used mainly steel Flexible fittings (in the form of individual bars or welded mesh and frameworks); sometimes - rigid fixture (rolling Beams, channels, angles). As fittings can be used as fiberglass, bamboo, etc. Materials.

    The diversity of structures determines the need for the production of special steel reinforcement, which should have different strength properties and have sufficient plastic properties. The most common fitting rod (hot-rolled, hardened thermally and hood), which, depending on the strength divided into 7 classes (produced with a diameter of 6 to 90 mm ), and a wire in the form of a wire (diameter from 3 to 8 mm ), strands, ropes, woven and welded meshes. In prestressed structures used to strain fitting of the reinforcing steel with high tensile strength [900 MN/m 2 (90 kgf/mm 2 ) and more].

    Depending on the perceived load fittings are:

    • transversal, prevents the formation of inclined cracks arise from the oblique shear stresses near the poles; as well as linking the concrete compression zone with reinforcement in the tension zone.
    • longitudinal tensile stresses receptive; and   prevent the formation of vertical cracks in the tension zone of reinforced concrete structures.
    • In the constructions receiving compressive force, longitudinal reinforcement takes some of the load, working together with the concrete.
    • prestressing,   subjected to pre-tension. The tension reinforcement to prevent cracking; reduces deflections; It reduces the amount of reinforcing steel and a mass of the concrete structure.   

    Joint work fittings and the concrete provides a grip on their contact surface. Clutch fittings with the concrete depends on the strength of concrete, the magnitude of its shrinkage, the age of the concrete and the shape of the cross section fittings and the type of surface. There are five types of contact with the concrete reinforcement:

    • connection to communicate the shift;
    • friction;
    • clutch (connection using concreting steel reinforcement element);
    • Compression fittings with concrete after shrinkage;
    • electrochemical interaction steel rebar and grout.   

    Increase strength characteristics of reinforcing steel is possible by hardening, tempering, or physical and thermal treatment.

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