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    Plastering

    Plastering Building insulation, protection from destruction of its precipitation, increased fire resistance - this is probably the most important appointment of plastering . Any building is best grout only after complete precipitation.
    It may be several kinds of plaster. They differ in their ways.
    Monolithic performed " wet " means for " dry " characteristic works fine cover sheet.

    Plaster can vary in quality and intended surface treatment. According to these criteria, it can be a special, ordinary and decorative.
    Usual plaster is divided into the following types:
    - A simple plaster;
    - Improved plaster;
    - High-quality plaster.
     
     
    When plastering using plaster spatula, falcon, trowel and a grater:
    • Plaster spatula designed for mixing, smoothing, spraying and spreading solution, as well as for measuring the material. It consists of a web thickness of approximately 1 mm, the handle a maximum height of 50 mm and 120-150 mm cutting length.
    • Sokol usually used to maintain during operation the required amount of solution, as well as for its spreading on the surface and further leveling. It is a wooden board with a handle in the middle, double-reinforced spine.
    • Trowel is used for leveling and spreading solution, rubbing the husk, Usenko facets. They consist of webs, t. E. Plaque thickness of 10-20 mm and a width of 50-100 mm, with a length of 250-1000 mm. In the center is a pen that nailed.
    • For grouting plaster used grater, which consists of a handle and a wooden canvas, fastened together with nails.
    • It is recommended to use a brush to wet plaster of the water while floating and to wet the surface before they will be applied to the solution.
    • When plastering plumb used for staking a specific surface profile, typically rail, which is used for checking and leveling plaster beacons and devices for pulling out nails are hammered horns.

    Mixtures for plastering

    When plastering the house recommends the following solutions.

    Lime-sand , the composition of which can vary from 2: 4 to 2:10. In other words, 2 parts lime mix plaster   must be taken from 4 to 10 parts of sand, depending on the fat content of the resulting smesi.Eti solutions should be used in plastering stone and brick surfaces. The exception here is the plinth walls in humid areas and cornices.

    Lime-plaster solutions is recommended to cook in small portions (3-4 liters). They are used in areas of de-moisturized in the plastering of stone, wood and brick surfaces. Prepare as follows: to 1 part of the gypsum is added from 2 to 5 parts by volume of a solution of lime. Pre-dissolved gypsum with water to a creamy mixture (first you need to pour water, and then add plaster and quickly mix). Then add a certain amount of lime solution and stirred with gypsum. The resulting solution should be used within 5-7 minutes (immediately!) After its preparation.

    cement-lime the solutions are different ratio of components - 2: 2: 1 ~ 2: 4: 18. In other words, two parts of cement accounts for from 2 to 4 parts lime mixture and 12-18 parts peska.Gotovyat this solution in several ways. In the first case, first knead the solution of the desired composition and the lime is then added to a cement more thoroughly all peremeshivayut.Vo second case cement is diluted with water to a thick cream and then a solution of lime and the resulting mixture was well stirred. Lime-cement mortar is used for plastering the outer walls, cornices, plinths and moisturizes the parts of the buildings.

    Cement Solutions very strong and ductile, their composition is from 1: 1 to 1: 3. Formulation 1: 2 means that one part of cement take 2 parts sand. First sand and cement were mixed and the resulting mixture was diluted with water to the desired thickness. After cooking, the solution can be used within 45 minutes. They plaster parts of buildings and the interior, who are continually exposed to moisture.

    Solutions for the rendering and the soil should be filtered through a sieve with holes 3x3 mm, and for the finish coat - 1,5x1,5 mm. You must also remember that the flow of solution for plastering depends on the thickness of overlaying.
     

    How to apply the plaster, depending on the surface:

    Thicker plaster should be applied to uneven surfaces and ceilings plastering material consumption must be increased by 1%.

    To a solution of how to firmly adhere to the surface, the latter prepared properly. In other words, the surface is roughened.

    Brick, concrete and cinder surfaces give roughness, making notches (a depth of at least 1 cm) on the surfaces of the walls with an ax or a steel brush. After such preparation of the surface is cleaned of dust and dirt, and washed with water before plastering.

    On the stone surface of the plaster is held relatively well, and to prevent its further otvalivaniya necessary incisions to insert pieces of wire, which are then linked to each other, or attach wire mesh or netting.

    In areas with a thick layer of plaster (even regardless of the surface) is recommended in addition to the preparation of nails and hammer on them to consolidate weaving wire.

    To plastering do not need to cook fibrolitovye, reed and solomitovye surface. Wooden racks that require plastering, you need to tighten the net to stuff them
    lath or to arrange a wire weave.

    Wood surfaces is recommended to tighten the mesh of wire or upholster shingles. Boards of this surface must be narrow, and if they are broad, they nadkalyvayut. and driven into place nadkoly small wedges. This prevents the board from warping, and plaster - from cracking.

    Plaster lath recommended thickness of 3-5 mm, a width of 15-20 mm. If lath replaced with willow twigs, their oshkurit is required, and if they are thicker than 10 mm, - raskolot.Dran packed in two rows. First row (prostilnaya lath 3-4 mm thick), it is necessary to fill the entire wall to the ceiling at a distance of 30-40 mm parallel to each other and at an angle of 45 degrees to the floor. The second number (output lath thickness of 4-5 mm) is stuffed with an interval of 40-50 mm, and under axes of the angle of Leah, but only in the opposite napravlenii.Vyhodnaya lath stuffed on prostilnuyu, located at a distance of 3-4 mm from the surface. It is necessary that this space lay rastvor.Kogda prostilnuyu stuffed lath, must be every bit Dranitsa baits pair of nails at the ends. Then, the output must be secured lath, hammering nails on the ends 2-3 prostilnye Dranitsa on the walls and ceilings 2. Then the nails from the shingles prostilnoy pull out.

    For printing plaster lath is necessary to use long nails 25, 30 and 40 mm. If nailing laths pricked, then it is dry, and it should be moistened with water.
    If instead of shingles steel mesh is used, it is recommended before or after filling it with oil paint to paint and then dried. This will help to protect the steel from rust and razrusheniya.Chtoby give the room sound and Teplon-permeability is necessary before packing shingles cover the surface of glassine paper or thick felt (possible sacking).

    These materials are pre-treated with special disinfectants against moths, and then dried sure.

    Before plastering of stone, brick, concrete and wood surfaces should be wetted with water to remove dust from the surface, and the solution is protected against moisture quick-impact surface (because of this it may lose its strength).
    Surfaces covered with felt, should sprinkle a little water, but in any case not wet.

    When plastering of stone, brick and concrete walls of the solution should be applied to the surface of 15 mm (normal thickness).

    For wooden wall thickness of the plaster should be 20 mm (thickness is necessary to consider the exit shingles) or 25 mm (if you count from the thickness of the surface).

    It is not recommended to apply the solution onto the surface of smaller thickness, since through such thin layers will shine lath, and when it is below the slightest change in the plaster will crack.

    Stages plastering:

    Plaster surfaces typically consists of three stages which differ from each other not only on the methods of performing the plastering, but also on the composition of the solution.
    • The rendering - the first stage of plastering. For the rendering, use a strong creamy solution which is necessary to impose a continuous layer thicknesses up to 5 mm.Eto made as if spraying the solution on the surface. It is very easy to fill in the surface roughness and firmly adheres to them and to the entire surface, is easy to hold on all the subsequent layers rastvora.Kogda this layer of plaster or just grab a little hardened, you are ready to spray the soil.
    • Primer - the second stage of plastering. For its application is necessary to use a weaker than for the rendering solution (pasty). The thickness of the soil depends largely on the thickness of the scratch coat (plaster). The primer layer should be applied no more than 10 mm. In spraying it is spread to obtain an even and smooth poverhnosti.Materialy required for soil sieved through a coarse sieve, and often it is possible to detect larger peschinki.Po this reason, the solution is difficult to grind. To avoid roughness soil cover over soft and fine-grained solution (finish coat).
    • Nakryvki - the third phase (layer) of plastering. It is creamy and weaker than the soil solution. His first throw and then leveled (either directly from the plaster falcon and level as even as possible).
    Smoothing trowel or spreader svezheoshtukaturennuyu surface during leveling, and if it should overwrite - do this operation, when the solution dries out a bit, or grab.

    Before You Begin need to clean the floors of debris, cover them with thick paper, asphalt, tar paper or roofing material to subsequently clean them from the frozen solution.
    Initially, plaster ceiling, then the walls, then the bottom.

    To plastering the walls with a solution of a box should be placed at a distance of 1 m from the working surface.
    In the left hand take the falcon, to the right - plaster spatula, then, putting on board the Falcon box, type shovel it in a solution of the required amount.

    Next opravte imposed weight and go to the wall. SHOULDER from Falcon, take the appropriate portion of the solution and nabroste it to the surface. Thereafter, the solution should be leveled sketched spreader or a falcon.

    Plastering can be carried out and spreading the solution directly from sokola.Dlya this falcon with a solution should be put to the wall. When should shovel " stick " keyway and with the necessary pressure to conduct a falcon from the bottom up. Thus the solution will not only spreadable, but also leveled.

    The solution can be applied and spreader, but mostly it is used only for razravnivaniya.Posle good leveling ground applied nakryvku and level and smooth down her. After setting, you can wipe the surface of the float, rotating it clockwise.

    When the finish coat dries, it should be wetted with water using a brush. Mashing be done cleanly, with no gaps, bumps and shells.

    When plastering ceilings box solution it is recommended to put in the middle komnaty.Dlya applying the solution should be to use a shovel, and is recommended for domazyvaniya falcon or poluterok.

    Get a flat surface without a certain experience in the plastering is very difficult. In order to achieve a positive result in the recommended install beacons - reechki required length that the thickness should be like plaster and be about the width of 20 - 30 mm. Fix these lighthouses can be nails or plaster solution at a distance of 1.5-2 m.Na walls beacons should be placed vertically or horizontally on the height of the length of the (strict!), And put them on the ceilings only horizontally, but also strict. In those places where the lighthouses are moving away from the walls, it is advisable for them to tamp wedges or mortgage rastvor.Oshtukaturivanie beacons do as follows: first spreader solution is spread, then the rule is carried out in an upward direction.

    The solution was added to and triturated until it reaches the level layer beacons. After completion of the rail is removed, and open up the space is filled with a solution and everything will be overwritten.

    At the junction of ceiling and walls form angles that must be absolutely smooth and sharp. When plastering to achieve such results is sometimes difficult, and to ease in places recommended ointment or plaster conventional triangular trowel and thorough grinding rasp.

    Luzgovy poluterok should be used for interior corners and truncated used for exterior uglov.Vtoroy poluterok freely can be made at home. To do this, fit a rectangular metal plate bent at right angles, or doski.Etot tool can then be even improved by cutting off both ends at an angle of 30 degrees fabric spreader and attaching them steel knives. Such a home addition poluterkom great help to remove excess solution.

    Plaster corners is recommended as follows. After sizing spreader angle should spend on it upwards and then downwards. Then, apply another layer and again more spreader must pass upwards and backwards. The result of this work should be smooth and level surface.

    The stone, brick and concrete buildings is necessary plastering of the wall thickness between the walls and boxes - slopes. Such plastering recommended only after plastering the walls. To do this, the walls on three sides (on top and sides) must be secured with the same rules planed edges.

    After that you need to make a plate with cut - Malki said. His smooth side of the tablet is moved by the rule, and the side with a cut on the drive korobke.Prostranstvo formed between a rule and a box filled with a solution, which is subsequently leveled Malka. At the same time it is necessary to maintain the rule and box. Once the ground is leveled, it is applied nakryvku again overwritten.

    Initially, the upper slope is recommended grout, and then zaglushiny - side. Plaster slopes with plaster walls form the outer corner of the speaker to be very good to jam spreader (it should be floated as long as it does not become completely vertical). Since sharp corners too fast break off, they are encouraged to do a round flat tape on them.

    To cement plaster as little leaky, it is recommended to iron. This is done as follows. The cement paste is smooth and thin layer is applied to the fresh plaster, then very well leveled and compacted lopatkoy.Vodonepronitsaemost plaster depends on the quality and layer zheleznenija: the smoother and more carefully laid layer, the higher the water resistance zheleznenija.

    When plastering all surfaces can different defects , among which we should highlight Quilted surface, insufficient strength, swelling and beat them, peel.
    • Quilted at the surface usually occur due to the fact that the solution contains fine particles nezagasivsheysya izvesti.Chtoby avoid this trouble, it is recommended to maintain lime putty to complete slaking. And only then carefully stirred rastvor.Esli this defect is not gone, it should discourage and clean places, which were Quilted. Then place the same defects embedded with the surface of the plaster solution.
    • Such a defect, as lack of strength, mainly occurs when the solution was insufficient amount of binder or sand strongly zagryaznen.Nedostatochno solid plaster discover tapping. Finding this defect should discourage the fragile plaster on the surface and re-plaster it more durable solution.
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