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  • Instruments /

    Joiner's and carpenter's tools

    Holding the only solid wood but without the most basic tools, you can do nothing . To operate you do not need something special, just all the most simple and affordable. The minimal set of tools consists of an ax, hammer, nail puller, chisels, screwdrivers with several different blades, wrenches and pliers. Over time, and as required, this minimal set can be constantly updated. Gradually, in your arsenal will knife-jamb, chisels of various profiles, handsaw for wood and metal, jig saw, electric drill with a set of drill bits and grinding discs for surface treatment, various types of sandpaper — from fine-grained to coarse-grained, Files and needle files with different frequency notches.  

      The manual joiner and carpenter's tools  

    Hand tools for the job with their own forces. Most nizhepredlozhennyh tools you can easily replace mechanical counterparts, which are driven by the force of the current. Still, some hand tools and are still indispensable.  

    Manual Woodworking and carpentry tools:  

    • hammer
    • Axe  
    • Saw
    • Plane
    • Chisel
    • Chisel
    • Knife  
    • Clamp
    • dobojnika
    • screwdriver
    • clips
    • Files
    • drill

    Hammer, perhaps the most important tool in carpentry and joinery. In stores you can find and hammers ready, and on parts. To handle hammer used wood dogwood, pear, acacia, which is particularly hard and cheap. For the striker hammer is used only high-grade steel. But even this very simple tool has several varieties.  
    Normal hammer can be found in any store. The impact surface of the hammer has a rectangular or square plane. The other end of the web has a pointed end, which is often used to correct when driving nails.  

    A erevyanny hammer , or Mallet , used for grinding solid wood while gluing. Also, it is often used when working with a chisel, in which the handle is made of wood. The blows dealt by the ordinary hammer, can simply break the handle and completely withdraw from the work of the chisel.  



    carpentry hammer differs from the conventional in that the tail pin is divided into two parts by a dovetail. This end is most often used for pulling out nails. Using a hammer at work, you can always have on hand, and means for hammering nails and pulling them.  



    The ax in carpentry business is simply irreplaceable. He's a little easier to hammer, but there are some variations. It all depends on the angle of the ax relative to the handle. Often the blade is sharpened on both sides, it allows you to use it immediately for the two types of work - chopping and hewn.  
    Sharpened on one side only is used for the ax-hewn timber.  
    Direct ax is used for chopping wood. Ax relative to the handle should be positioned at an angle of 90 degrees.  
    Ostrouglovoy ax for primary woodworking: removing the bark and twigs protruding on the trunk. This type of ax ax relative to the handle is located at an angle slightly less than 90 degrees — 80 — 85 degrees.  
    Tupouglovoy ax has its own characteristics. His ax disposed relative to the handle at an angle of 100 degrees or less. This ax is used for the most serious works, such as construction of a wooden house or a bath of whole tree trunks.    

    If you want to do something out of wood, you first will hacksaw. Depending on the thickness of the fabric and the wiring of the teeth as a result of cutting you can get different quality sawn surface. Different type of saber used when performing a particular job. Also, depending on the work you need to use a hacksaw with a thick and a thin blade with a large or small teeth. So joinery more suitable hacksaw to « mouse tooth » — small and frequent, and is suitable for carpentry hacksaw with a rare and large teeth. Wide hacksaw used when cutting wood across the grain. The teeth of a hacksaw sharpened at an angle of 45 degrees and separated by 0.5 mm from the central axis. Narrow hacksaw is used mainly when cutting thin boards and particle board, as well as sawing curved parts. The size of the wiring and the way of sharpening the teeth is no different from sharpening general hacksaw. Hacksaw with butt used for sawing small parts and fitting connections. The peculiarity of this handsaw is that the painting of the entire length of reinforced plank. A thin sheet of hacksaw is not able to hold their own direction of cutting and often breaks at work.    

    Plane is also indispensable in working with wood. It allows you to remove unwanted wood and makes the flat surface of the part. Plane may have a metal or wooden body.  
    Metal plane is easier to use in the processing of solid wood and particleboard.  
      Wooden plane is mainly used in the performance of essential work. That it is easier to slide on the surface of the treated wood, which allows less strain the muscles of the arms. To work you should definitely get several types of planes, which would have been handy rasp and fragile, thin, small parts and large boards and schools. Depending on what you want to do, use different types of planers.  
    sherhebelem is used for rough machining of wood. It prepares the surface for further alignment and smooth out any unevenness after sawing. Features of the structure of the planer that the chamfer with the knife removed semicircle. Sherhebelem must be massive and heavy, it is easier to overcome obstacles, so often the body is metal. Single plane used for leveling the surface after work sherhebelem. The feature of this planer is the blade with a width of about 4 cm, and even more. The chips from the blade comes out smooth, almost no breaks. However, the surface treatment of wood pieces can form a sliver or burrs. Dual plane is used only for the bare surface finishing. After that a plane planing wood acquires a completely flat, smooth surface. Production is due to the quality of the surface of the structure of the plane. Each knife is sure to put the chip breaker that protects the surface from scuffing and splits.  
    jointer and polufuganok are used for planing surface of large parts. This mission is due to the length of pads, which is about 70 — 80 cm and 50-60 cm jointer for polufugankov. Jointer knives and polufugankov must also be appropriate — width 5 — 8 cm. After treatment, the surface fugankom sure to walk further double planes, which acts as the blade is not more than 0.3 mm. Shliftik a shorter plane. It has two narrow set obliquely knife. That is easy enough to strip a plane formed by planing sherhebelem teaser and not amenable to easy processing of a plane irregular grain and knots. Its design chip breaker is not provided, so from the blade always leaves a thin strip screwed. But this can lead to the formation of splits. To improve yourself can implement planer chip breaker.  
    Tsinubel looks very similar to a plane. Its purpose — smooth the surface of boards and slabs for subsequent bonding. Also respond well to this treatment of a plane different irregular grain, bullies and knotty. In addition, if the surface of the plywood process in such a plane, and then pasted it veneer, you get very good quality coating. If untreated prostrogat board first surface in the direction of the fibers, and then across them, then the result can remove any unevenness. All these features are confined to using a special knife and his statement. The edges of the blades are always provided, thereby forming a small hollow inside. Therefore, the planing surface to get small trees. The knife is always placed relative to the surface almost perpendicular — 70-80 degrees.    

    For the woodwork, you will need several types of chisels. They will help you to choose a wood where no podlezet saw, or level the surface, where it can not make a plane.  
    Direct chisel most often used for cutting rectangular recesses. The width of the fabric allows you to make both large and small holes. In most cases, the width of the web does not exceed 6 cm, but tse may be less than 3 mm. Typically, a straight chisel blade is removed from the bevel on only one side, and the thickness of the chamfer ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 cm, while changing the angle of the knife sharpening.  
    semicircular stomeska is used where it is necessary to make a round hole or recess. Without it is impossible to do with the alignment of the surface of the semi-circular recesses. In addition, using a semicircular chisel, you can make a smooth line, which can not be obtained using a straight chisel. Between a semicircular chisel vary in width of the web, the radius of the circle and the depth of penetration in solid wood chisels. Depending on this distinguished steep, sloping or deep semicircular chisels. There is another name for deep chisels — tseraziki. At a minimum, woodwork and carpentry kit must be two semicircular chisels with width of a cloth about 10 — 12 mm, one of which must be cool, and the other — shelving.  
    Corner chisel is used to fetch wood in the preparation of accurate geometric recesses. Angular chisels differ in width of the web and the angle between the beveled blade, which can range from 45 degrees to 90.  
    Chisel-kljukarzy are necessary for the formation of the sample timber indentations where it is impossible to use other tools, and where required in the sample flat bottom surface. The only difference from all the above discussed — curvature of the web. These chisels are different for coal, direct and semicircular. Each type of chisel-kljukarzy has its varieties: the width of the web, the depth of chamfering at sharpening, largest radius. There is another characteristic that is applicable only to kljukarzy — the nature and magnitude of bend.    

    Chisel looks like a chisel, but it is quite another tool. Chisel intended for chipping wood, so the handle is attached a ferrule which prevents the crack from wood hammer blows. In addition, to avoid damage to the handle and also a better penetration of the blade in the array wood chisel is used only in conjunction with a mallet — mallet. The chisel has a massive canvas than a chisel. Depending on the type of work bits divided into carpentry and joinery. The width of the working canvas carpenter's chisel does not exceed 15 mm, and the canvas carpentry chisels usually only starts with 20 mm. Moreover, the web does not have a bit of joinery at the bottom of any extensions unlike carpentry, where it is a must.    

    Knife jamb for cutting small grooves in solid wood, as well as for cutting into pieces of veneer. Knife-jamb chamfered at an angle of 30 — 40 degrees and the blade of a knife can vary depending on its purpose — from 4 mm to 5 cm. sharpening the blade of the knife may be formed on the one hand, and with the two, according to distinguish knives with one or two chamfers. Knives differ from one facet to the right and the left depending on which side of the chamfered. Odnofasknye blades can only be used either right or left hand. They are more specific than the blades with two-flats, and allow to penetrate the wood only on one side, depending on which side of the recess needed. Knives with two-flats in the universal, but the wood is cut from two sides of the blade. Their main purpose — easy cutting. Knife-cycle is used for such transactions as a cycler, and a cutting blade attached to a handle of hardwood. When sharpening chamfer can only be removed from one side to 45 degrees, allowing the blade to glide over the surface, without going into the array, and remove thin shavings.    

    To work with wood deputy will be needed mites. Their main purpose — pulling nails, biting nails, hats, bending wire and nails at fastening. Depending on what you want to do with a nail, distinguish needlenose pliers and pliers.    

    The joinery and carpentry used for burial nail head in solid wood.    


    To mount wooden parts with screws you'll need different screwdrivers. Depending on the slot in the screw cap is necessary to have two types of screwdrivers; wedge and a cross.  

    The clamps are required when bonding, contraction and mounting details. This is a fairly large group of devices that are used in joinery and carpentry. As the clips are not only clamps. Their metallic structure is not always suitable for mounting components, ie. A. Often leaves traces on the surface. Also use clamps Clamps, press vise. It is also often used pieces of rubber, rope or wooden blocks.    

    Files of different forms you will need for the final surface grinding, remove all burrs, uneven and rough, where you can not use other tools.    


    As you work, you definitely need a drill with a set of drill bits. It is necessary to drill holes in solid wood for screws or studs.  


      Power tool    


    Handmade wood processing — very time-consuming job, to you it sometimes takes a long time to perform a simple operation. By using different machines, you can do the same, but much faster, your work will be more productive.  

    Electric tools:  

    • Power saw
    • elektrorubanok  
    • Elektrodolbezhnik  
    • Electric drill
    • jigsaw
    • milling machine

      Power saw      
    Power saws can be of two types — Chain and disk.  
    Chainsaws most often used for cutting large ridges , plates, thick beams and planks.  




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