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  • Electrical /

    Light of the new century

    new age has come, and now replace the "light bulb Ilyich" are new lighting technology. Today the heroes of the day are conductively lighting system. About them we will talk in this review.

    So, there are many interpretations of the grounded systems, but they are so much that it does not allow the customer to navigate in a variety of models from different companies. They are very different, and each dealer calls them in his own way. To make it easier to find common ground and find their way in a sea of ​​proposals, it is useful to know something about them.

    Light in the hands of the decorator

    Conductive lighting system - an ordered set of unique, peculiar only to her components: conductors, devices suspension conductor and lamps, various connecting and terminal elements of the transformer, where the conductor is the supporting element for luminaires that can be installed at any point. Conductor may have a different degree of hardness and structure being open or isolated. There are two types of electrically conductive systems for residential interior - string (rope) and shinnoprovodnye.

    Conductive system fully prove that the light - the same tool decorator, as well as construction materials, and their popularity is growing. A few years ago, Russians could see them only in the sales rooms of stores, showrooms and modern offices, now lighting and cozy feel in the interior of the home.

    Rapid analysis of design projects shows that most of the grounded systems used as additional or local lighting systems with a central lamp. However, these systems are versatile - they can come up and for general and accent lighting for the space, the lighting, suspended on the conductor can be easily rearranged, thereby changing the accents. Bored fixtures easily replaced by others of the lighting system of the same series. Ease of use and the effect is that the electrical conductors can be installed in any location regardless of the height of the ceiling. And what's more, they can be crossed in any direction and change the direction of the radius (for track) or at an acute angle (stretching for strings).

    ... How to hang in volts?

    All of the grounded system are divided into low and high voltage.

    In the first case, the conductor is supplied with an alternating current step-down transformer at 12 V and 24 V. The latter is rarely not widespread because of the scarcity of light sources. Light sources in low-voltage systems perform relatively inexpensive and common commercially halogen bulb 12. However, they are sensitive to drops and surges, which can significantly reduce their lifespan.

    Low-voltage systems are safe for humans, so they are set as in the "adult" rooms - kitchens, living rooms, hallways, - and in the children's rooms. Lamps for children's rooms are equipped with very nice colored shades. Also, low-voltage system is used to illuminate the mirrors, bookshelves, paintings and photo galleries. Low-voltage systems produce several dozen foreign companies. In Russia, the most famous of companies from Germany - PAULMANN, SCHMITZ LEUCHTEN, METALSPOT, BRUCK, OLIGO, INGO MAURER, BRILLIANT, LUXOL, BANKAMP; from Italy - TARGETTI, NUOVA MIZAR, ARTEMIDE; and Austria - PLANLICHT.

    To high-voltage systems down transformer is not required - to the conductor supplied mains voltage of 220 V. The choice of types of light sources for such systems is much broader. It is used with halogen lamps (220 V), fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps. If desired or necessary, you can even hang the lights with powerful metal halide lamps, which a few years ago made a real revolution in interior lighting. The leading suppliers of high-Conductive systems on the Russian market are the company SCHMITZ LEUCHTEN, BRUCK, BANKAMP, METALSPOT, PLANLICHT.

    High-voltage lighting system is recommended to be used in rooms with high ceilings (more than 2.7 m, so as not to hurt the wire arms), though the conductor and all connecting elements provide the necessary insulation to prevent electric shock.

    My Strings, strings ...

    The string lighting systems, electric current flows on the stretched ropes, woven from thin wires of 0.1 mm diameter copper or aluminum, which are ordinary electrical product.

    To low-voltage systems use thin wires, commonly called strings, as they are often not isolated. The high-voltage lighting systems (due to the higher power and electrical conditions) used thicker insulated cables - to avoid overheating of the conductor. The relative lack of use of insulated cables is that the luminaire insulation has to be cut or pierced. Therefore, in the case of moving the lamps on the rope and remain under careful examination will be visible places of their previous fixture.

    Typically, in systems using two strings of parallely arranged cable, separated by a distance of 3 to 20 cm apart. One of the cables is a neutral conductor, the other phase. Lamps hung them with flexible suspension, or located between two cables in one plane.

    All of the grounded system can be mounted horizontally, vertically or obliquely - all depends on the fixtures. The cables are tensioned hard enough - in order to avoid sagging. Therefore it is not recommended to install a system of string between two gypsum walls. In this case, it is desirable to use long anchor bolts for mounting on the main wall, or mount the cables to the ceiling by means of two vertical posts.

    Production of stringed systems employing several dozen firms. In Russia, you can buy lighting companies PAULMANN, SCHMITZ LEUCHTEN, METALSPOT, BRUCK, OLIGO, INGO MAURER, NUOVA MIZAR, PLANLICHT, CINI & amp; NILS, BELUX and others.

    Tyres - not only in cars

    In contrast to the string of lighting, electrical conductors which serve as the standard metal cables, conductor of all other systems unique to each of them. The variations are many, and it causes confusion in their names. In Russia, the new name does not come up just lazy - conductor called and tires, and tokovodami and tokprovodami, modules and tracks.

    But interestingly, there is no common language, even abroad. For example, in Germany, all the conductor, in addition to the cables, called Schienen or kalkiruya from English, "tracks" (tracks). In the United States expanded the number of terms, which makes it possible to more accurately classify the conductor.

    For example, the structure, made of extruded aluminum profile with an integrated copper conductors, the Americans called "tracks". Systems with conductive sandwich structure in which two layers of conductor separated by a dielectric layer, called Monorail systems, ie, systems with a single rail. Widespread system of thin metal tubes retailers in the United States called Twinrail systems (them and we call the rails).

    Since the conductor on the basis of aluminum profiles in domestic terminology called "busbars" or simply "tire" borrowed word "track" turned loose, and suppliers of lighting systems use it quite freely, often naming tracks monorail conductor. Let's try to unify the classification based on the American terminology, which seemed to us the most advanced and reasonable. A single point for all kinds of designs is one thing - the stiffness, ie These conductor retain a predetermined shape and does not require tensioning. For simplicity, we will call them busbars, in short, "tires", and divide by rail and track shinoprovodnye system.

    When all the variety they are equally attached to the ceiling and walls. Conductor rails can be hung as a basic and decorative ceilings, as an average of one meter design with lamp weighs less than 3 kg. Suspension by using ropes of flexible or rigid plastic rods, or insulated brackets at the ends. The distance varies from 50 to 150 cm from each other so as to prevent deflection by its own weight and weight of fixtures.

    The surface of most of the busbar has a decorative coating, ranging from chrome and finishing with 14-carat gold-plated - for every taste and interior. In low-voltage systems where the current flows in a bare tires made conductive coating as adapters lamps are fixed directly on the outer surface. Adapters - is unique to each tire of the bracket design in which fixtures are attached to the busbar and receive electrical energy.

    for comfort ... on rails

    All rail systems are low-voltage. This is due to the fact that the current flows through the bare, bare conductors. The monorail systems conductor cross-sectional shape can be very diverse: round, elliptical, square. The size of the cross section of the low-voltage monorail across the width of 6-10 mm, height - 15-25 mm.

    As modification also produces conveyor trunking. Between two conductive layers (not thicker than a millimeter) is also a thin layer of insulating material. The rails may be bent in any plane, however, there are limitations on the radius of curvature. As a rule, the minimum bending radius is 50 cm, but for each of the rules. With a smaller radius of curvature of the track is damaged decorative coating, in the worst case, the rail break. Conveyor rails that are only low voltage, can be bent along the wide side with an even smaller radius. Bending track produced in the factory, in the workshop of the supplier or on the spot. In the latter case, you need a special mechanism that can provide rental provider.

    The rail can be cut to the desired size directly on site, but the producers are advised to do this procedure at the factory due to the high probability damage to the insulation layer and decorative coatings. Most manufacturers produce several monorails fixed lengths, adopted on the basis of practical application.

    In the Russian market offers monorail systems companies SCHMITZ LEUCHTEN, METALSPOT, BRUCK, OLIGO, BANKAMP, PLANLICHT, ARTEMIDE.

    And finally ...

    The basic requirements for installation of the lighting system, as well as all electrical products are electrical safety requirements. Failure to do so may result in very serious consequences. Especially amateurism is not allowed when installing a high-voltage lighting systems - invite to his house specialist installers.

    But the installation of packaged low-voltage systems should take precautions. Before connecting the transformer must be disconnected from the input network, and after connecting a voltmeter to check the voltage on the conductor. The breakdown of high voltage should not be (the voltmeter should show pressure of not more than 12). 12 V is safe, therefore, to adjust the location of lighting fixtures and light bulbs can be changed without turning off the system from the network. The requirements of aesthetics, of course, is not as critical as the security requirements, but it is their neglect, carelessness and haste will not subsequently be fully satisfied with the design of the acquired lighting system.

    And more. Long gone are the days when a buyer chasing beautiful lights, almost without thinking about the adequacy of lighting. If high-voltage systems, the adjustment of the light flux is made easy - just screw in a light bulb with more power, then for low-voltage systems Conductive such a calculation is absolutely necessary. It is necessary to precisely match the power transformer, the number and position of the luminaire, light source power. The exact calculation of lighting systems produce lighting designer of the supplier. This is not a trivial task, because each lamp has its own curve of intensity (light distribution), and creates a certain distance illumination, which is measured in lux. It was she, and not the power of the light sources, expressed in more familiar to the layman Watts is an input parameter in the calculation.

    In practice, it is still possible to make a rough calculation. For example, for apartments with low ceilings (2.5-2.7 m) will be enough for general lighting fixtures with a total capacity of 10 to 15 watts per square meter. If the ceilings are high, or increase the total capacity of lamps or lighting system installed at a low height.

    pofantaziruet design. For example, experts do not advise to install the lighting system along the middle line in the narrow room - this room seem even narrower. Move the system to one of the parties.

    It is necessary to carefully identify the site of attachment to the ceiling suspension in the case of shinoprovodnoy system and the point of attachment to the wall of a wired system. 

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