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  • Electrical /

    On the generators

     

    The genset is designed to provide power to consumers within the electrical system and charge the battery when the car engine is running. The output of the generator must be such that under all driving conditions did not occur the progressive discharge of the battery. In addition, the voltage on-board network fed by the generator set must be stable over a wide range of speeds and loads.  
    Genset - enough reliable device that can withstand high vibration of the engine, the engine compartment temperature is high, the impact of wet environments, dirt, and other factors.

    Specifications

    Maximum power current output (at 13 minutes and 5000 -1 ), A

    55

    The limits of the regulated voltage, V

    14,1 + 0,5

    The maximum speed of the rotor, m -1

    13000

    The gear ratio of the motor-generator

    1: 2,04

    Features of the device and the principle of action

    Generator type 37.3701 - AC, three-phase, with built-in rectifier unit and an electronic voltage regulator, clockwise rotation (drive side) with a fan at the drive pulley and the ventilation windows in the front part. To protect against dirt back cover of the generator protective cover is closed.

    At the heart of the generator is the effect of electromagnetic induction. If the coil, for example, copper wire, the magnetic flux penetrates, when it changes at the terminals of the coil there is an alternating voltage. Such coils placed in the slots of the magnetic circuit (iron package) constitute the stator winding - a stationary part of the generator essential - they generate an alternating electrical current.
    Magnetic flux is created in the generator rotor. He, too, is a coil (excitation coil) through which passes direct current (excitation current). This winding is laid into the grooves of its magnetic (pole system). The structure of the rotor - the most important mobile part of the generator - also includes a shaft and slip rings. When the rotor opposite the coils of the stator winding appear alternately " Northern ", and " Southern " rotor poles, t. e. the direction of the magnetic flux penetrating the stator winding changes, which causes them to an alternating voltage.
    It could be used as a permanent magnet rotor, but the creation of magnetic flux electromagnet makes it easy to adjust the output voltage over a wide speed range and load current by adjusting the excitation current.

    To receive the AC voltage from the constant use of six power semiconductor diodes which are between a rectifier unit mounted within the housing of the generator.

    Power is provided by the field winding of the generator and fed to her through the brushes and slip rings.
    In order to ensure the initial excitation of the generator, after the ignition is switched to the terminal " B " voltage regulator, supplied by two current circuits.
    1. Plus battery - terminal 30 of the generator - contact 30/1 and 15 ignition - contact 86 and 85 of the relay coil ignition - minus the battery. The relay is turned on, and the current went on the second circuit:
    2. Plus battery - generator terminal 30 - contacts 30 and 87 of the ignition relay - №2 fuse in the fuse box - contact 4 white connector in the instrument cluster - 36 Ohm resistor in the instrument cluster - a control lamp Charging the battery - track 12 white connector in the instrument cluster - track 61 - display " B " voltage regulator - field winding - output " W " voltage regulator - the output transistor voltage regulator - minus the battery.
    After starting the motor field winding is powered with a total output of three additional diodes mounted on the rectifier unit and the voltage of the electrical system of the car is controlled by an LED or lamp in the instrument cluster. When the generator is running properly after the ignition is switched on or LED lamp should light up, and after starting the engine - fade. Tension on the 30th contact and general withdrawal of the additional diodes 61 becomes equal. Therefore, the current through the control lamp (LED) does not take place, and it does not burn.  
    If the lamp (LED) lights up after starting the engine, this means that the generating set is faulty, t. E. Generally does not produce voltage, or it is lower than the battery voltage. In this case, the voltage on the connector 61 below the voltage on pin 30. Therefore, in the circuit flows between the current flowing through the LED/lamp. He/she lights up, warning of malfunction of the generator.

    The voltage regulator: the purpose and principle of action

    The generator set is equipped with solid-state electronic voltage regulator, integrated into the generator. Generator voltage regulator without depending on the rotational speed of its rotor, the magnetic flux generated by the excitation winding, and therefore the strength of the current in this winding and the amount of current given off generator to consumers. The greater the speed and strength of the excitation current, the greater the voltage of the generator, the greater its load current, the lower is the voltage.  
    The function of the voltage regulator is to stabilize the voltage when changing speed and load by controlling the excitation current.

    Electronic regulators change the excitation current by turning on and off the field winding from the mains (additional diodes).  
    With increasing speed of the rotor of the generator voltage rises. When it starts to exceed the level of 13,5 & hellip; 14,2 V, the output transistor to the voltage regulator is locked, and the current through the field winding is interrupted. The generator voltage falls, the transistor in the regulator opens and again passes a current through the field winding.
    The higher the speed of the generator rotor, the more time the locked state of the transistor in the controller, hence the greater the voltage of the generator is reduced. The process of locking and unlocking control occurs with high frequency. Therefore, fluctuations in the output voltage of the generator are imperceptible and almost can be considered his constant maintained at 13,5 & hellip; 14,2 in.

    The voltage regulator: the purpose and principle of action

    The generator set is equipped with solid-state electronic voltage regulator, integrated into the generator. Generator voltage regulator without depending on the rotational speed of its rotor, the magnetic flux generated by the excitation winding, and therefore the strength of the current in this winding and the amount of current given off generator to consumers. The greater the speed and strength of the excitation current, the greater the voltage of the generator, the greater its load current, the lower is the voltage.  
    The function of the voltage regulator is to stabilize the voltage when changing speed and load by controlling the excitation current.

    Electronic regulators change the excitation current by turning on and off the field winding from the mains (additional diodes).  
    With increasing speed of the rotor of the generator voltage rises. When it starts to exceed the level of 13,5 & hellip; 14,2 V, the output transistor to the voltage regulator is locked, and the current through the field winding is interrupted. The generator voltage falls, the transistor in the regulator opens and again passes a current through the field winding.
    The higher the speed of the generator rotor, the more time the locked state of the transistor in the controller, hence the greater the voltage of the generator is reduced. The process of locking and unlocking control occurs with high frequency. Therefore, fluctuations in the output voltage of the generator are imperceptible and almost can be considered his constant maintained at 13,5 & hellip; 14,2 in.

    generator drive and mount it to the engine

    The generator drive is carried out from the crankshaft using a belt drive belt. Accordingly, this belt drive pulley of the generator is performed with one creek.  
    For cooling the rear side of the generator pulley plates are welded by spot welding. On the pulley are arranged almost perpendicular to and function of the fan.  
    Bottom mount the generator on the engine performed on the two mounting legs, jointed with the motor bracket with one long bolt with a nut. Top - through pin to a tension bar.

    Precautions

    Operation of the generator set requires compliance with certain rules relating primarily to the presence of electronic components.  
    1. Do not operate the generator set with the battery disconnected. Even short disconnection of the battery when the generator is running can cause damage to the voltage regulator components of the system.  
    When a fully discharged battery car impossible to start, even if her skate in tow: the battery does not provide the excitation current and the system voltage remains close to zero. It helps to install a functioning charged battery, which then with the engine running is changed to the old, discharged. To avoid the failure of components of the voltage regulator (and the connected consumers) due to the increase of the voltage at the time of transposition of batteries must include the major power consumers, such as the rear window or headlamp. In the future, for half an hour of engine 1500-2000 rev/min flat battery (if it is working) is charged enough to start the engine.
    2. Not allowed to connect to the on-board network power sources of opposite polarity (plus in the " weight "), which can occur, for example, when you start the engine from outside the battery.  
    3. Do not allow any verification scheme generator set with connecting sources high voltage (above 14 V).  
    4. When carrying out electric welding on the vehicle terminal " weight " the welding machine must be connected to the workpiece. The wires to the generator and a pressure regulator should be disabled.

    Service Generator

    Maintenance of the generating set is minimized and does not require any special knowledge and skills, these jobs can fulfill every car enthusiast.
    Service Generator start by cleaning the exterior surfaces. Check the fastening of the generator to the engine, the reliability of connection of wires to the generator and the voltage regulator and the fan belt tension. If the tension is weak, then the generator is unstable if the strong - the belt and bearings wear out quickly.  
    Also check the condition of the drive belt. On it there should be no cracks and bundles.  
    Bearing condition can be checked by turning the generator rotor by hand when removing the drive belt. In the normal state of the bearing shaft rotation should take place smoothly, without binding, a strong backlash, noise and clicks.

    generator drive and mount it to the engine

    The generator drive is carried out from the crankshaft using a belt drive belt. Accordingly, this belt drive pulley of the generator is performed with one creek.  
    For cooling the rear side of the generator pulley plates are welded by spot welding. On the pulley are arranged almost perpendicular to and function of the fan.  
    Bottom mount the generator on the engine performed on the two mounting legs, jointed with the motor bracket with one long bolt with a nut. Top - through pin to a tension bar.

    Precautions

    Operation of the generator set requires compliance with certain rules relating primarily to the presence of electronic components.  
    1. Do not operate the generator set with the battery disconnected. Even short disconnection of the battery when the generator is running can cause damage to the voltage regulator components of the system.  
    When a fully discharged battery car impossible to start, even if her skate in tow: the battery does not provide the excitation current and the system voltage remains close to zero. It helps to install a functioning charged battery, which then with the engine running is changed to the old, discharged. To avoid the failure of components of the voltage regulator (and the connected consumers) due to the increase of the voltage at the time of transposition of batteries must include the major power consumers, such as the rear window or headlamp. In the future, for half an hour of engine 1500-2000 rev/min flat battery (if it is working) is charged enough to start the engine.
    2. Not allowed to connect to the on-board network power sources of opposite polarity (plus in the " weight "), which can occur, for example, when you start the engine from outside the battery.  
    3. Do not allow any verification scheme generator set with connecting sources high voltage (above 14 V).  
    4. When carrying out electric welding on the vehicle terminal " weight " the welding machine must be connected to the workpiece. The wires to the generator and a pressure regulator should be disabled.

    Service Generator

    Maintenance of the generating set is minimized and does not require any special knowledge and skills, these jobs can fulfill every car enthusiast.
    Service Generator start by cleaning the exterior surfaces. Check the fastening of the generator to the engine, the reliability of connection of wires to the generator and the voltage regulator and the fan belt tension. If the tension is weak, then the generator is unstable if the strong - the belt and bearings wear out quickly.  
    Also check the condition of the drive belt. On it there should be no cracks and bundles.  
    Bearing condition can be checked by turning the generator rotor by hand when removing the drive belt. In the normal state of the bearing shaft rotation should take place smoothly, without binding, a strong backlash, noise and clicks. On the generators
    In principle, these works can be and is limited to those long as there will be any problem.

    Safety check

    Before departure it is recommended to check the performance of the generating set for warning lamp mounted on the dashboard. After turning on the ignition to start the engine warning lamp lights up, allowing you to check its performance. In normal operation, the generator set control lamp goes out after starting the engine.  
    At normal operating generator set at medium engine speed, the voltage must be within 13.5 ... 14.2 V. The value of the voltage measured by a voltmeter across the battery terminals.

    pre-repair diagnostics

    The outbreak of the battery charge indicator lamp is not always a malfunction in the generator. Often the problem is banal and obvious. So do not immediately get into the generator and headlong change the relay controller, maybe help. See diagram preliminary diagnosis. For its implementation, you may need a voltmeter with a scale of not less than 15 V. Each can make these checks and, thus, protect themselves from unnecessary, wrong actions and the loss of precious time.

    If the preliminary diagnosis indicated that the field winding circuit is OK and the problem is in the generator, after its removal, it is desirable to check all circuits, including relay-regulator, the scheme described in the section

    " Removing and installing the generator

    1. Disconnect the negative cable from the battery terminals (key 10).
    2. Remove the plastic tape from the pipe intake collars and harness starter and generator.
    3. Disconnect the connector of field winding.
    4. Remove the nut from the 30th of the generator terminals (key 10).
    5. Remove the nut on the generator to a tension lath (key 17).
    6. Use the tire lever to move the generator to the engine and remove the drive belt.
    7. Remove the three screws crankcase (head 13) and remove it.
    8. Remove the right mudguard of the engine by removing the five screws with a head on a turnkey 8.
    9. Remove the nut 19 from the lower bolts of the generator to an arm.
    10. Remove the generator with the air intake pipe.



     

     

     

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