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  • Concrete /

    The device of concrete floor

      General requirements for the installation of concrete floor are:

    • used concrete is not lower than the M-300;
    • Delta thickness of the concrete screed must not exceed 3 – 5 cm. Otherwise it is recommended to level the foundation footing;
    • Recommended thickness of the concrete floor of hard-packed base at least 12 cm on the existing concrete base not less than 7 cm;
    • standard version reinforcement – Road Net. In the case of high load recommended thickness of the floor at least 12 cm and reinforced reinforcement reinforcing cage volume;
    • for floors with high operational loads recommended concrete surface hardeners (toppings), increases the strength of the concrete surface at 100%;
    • for dust removal and strengthening of concrete surface using polymer impregnation.
       

    First of all, the device is a new concrete floor suggests the following events – leveling the base and its preparation.
    Leveling the base should be carried out by optical and laser levels. The aim of this operation is to determine the relief foundation, zero, level floor surface, calculation of gravity layer (if necessary, its device).

    When laying a concrete floor on the ground must first be well compacted it to avoid further cracking due to subsidence of the floor base. After tamping the ground is laid sand cushion. Its thickness can be varied depending on the types of soil foundation, the degree of freezing, the height of lifting groundwater etc. (ranges from 0.5 to 1 m). Sand bed must also be sealed.

      It is necessary to make a thorough training base. If there are any cracks, then they need to expand and fill the repair composition consisting of a polymer or of a cement-sand mixture to strain on the cement.

    Land of the concrete base, beyond repair, must be completely dismantled and put new concrete.
    Available in some parts of the base of differences in height are removed milling machine. The resultant dust is removed using industrial vacuum cleaners.
    In the case where height differences on the old concrete base exceeds 3-5 cm, it is necessary to align the footing.
     
      After the airbag compacted sand or de-dusted and polished the old concrete base laid waterproofing. Most often it is made from rolled bituminous waterproofing materials or polymeric membranes. If there is no moisture in the ground, or a leak to the floor construction is not critical enough to fulfill the underlying layer of polyethylene film.
     
      At sites with large areas of concrete floor screed device performed « maps » – boxes of a certain size. Size « maps » determined by the area of ​​sex, laid per shift, ie performance. Along the perimeter of the card installed formwork.
    The formwork can be used as a guide for the screed. The line of formwork, if possible, should coincide with the pattern of expansion joints, as in most cases the abutment is already seized and fresh concrete.
     
    As reinforcement for concrete floors is most commonly used road mesh reinforcement Class-I diameter rods 5 mm mesh size 150x150 mm or 100x100 mm. In those instances when the floor is exposed to high loads (trucks, forklifts, pallet, etc.), it is advisable to use, instead of a mesh or a road with its reinforcing cage. The reinforcement frame is usually fit in place of the rebars diameter of 8 to 16 mm. In those cases where the floor will be affected by the high dynamic loads (working machinery and heavy equipment, storage of bulky items, etc.) to improve the toughness and durability of concrete to tensile bending as reinforcement steel fiber can be used. < br />
    Once installed formwork and reinforcement is laid, start the concreting of floors. Usually laid in mortar concrete mix has the mobility P2, which corresponds to slump from 6 to 10 cm. But in some cases, can be used with a mixture of mobility. This depends on the method of laying and compacting intensity.
    If the mixer truck can drive right up to the place of installation, unloading the concrete mix produced directly on the prepared surface. If the work is not on the ground floor or in cases where the mixer truck can not drive up to the place of installation, use a concrete pump.

    Compaction and leveling of concrete mixture can be made in two ways: by using screed rails or by the rules of « beacons ».

    When using screeds must first be set at zero and carefully put the horizon guides. In the process, you need to ensure that they were not shot down. After that, the guide is mounted screed.
    The concrete mix is ​​poured onto the prepared substrate and spread with in such a way that its top was slightly above the screed. The concrete mixture under vibration settles to the desired level and leveled. It should ensure that screed constantly glided over the surface of the concrete. In those places where the mixture settles below it, add a shovel concrete into the necessary quantities.
     
      on the basis of sex and the level is set arbitrarily selected a certain level. Then, to the wall on which the mark has a zero level of the floor batten is applied so that it coincides with the bottom of the mark. Rail put the risk corresponding to an arbitrarily chosen by a leveling level.
    On the basis of the concrete mix is ​​filled to about half of the required level, and from the hills beacons made in increments of 2 m. On each of the mounds set rake risk. Risk combined with the level established in the leveler. Then customize hill top on the bottom rail.
    Upon completion of the preparatory work space between beacons poured concrete mixture. The floor surface is leveled flush with the tops of the rule « beacons ». The seal is made by deep vibrators.
     
      After the process is completed laying, leveling and compacting the concrete mix, the concrete surface is processed. For this purpose wipe disk-blade machine (so-called « helicopters »).
    But there must be a technological break, so that the concrete can gain early strength. Depending on the humidity and temperature of the environment, this break is from 3 to 7 hours. During this time, the concrete hardens, so that an adult stepping on its surface, leaves a trace depth of 3-4 mm. During this period, to begin to rough grout surface.
     
      The concrete adjacent to the structure, columns, pits, doorways and walls should be treated first and foremost, because in these places it hardens faster than the rest of the area. Concrete Grout in these places is made by means of edge smoothing machines equipped with freely rotating circle.
    When using dry hardener (topping) it gently dispersed on the surface of the screed, trying to achieve a uniform layer thickness. Consumption in the first introduction of – about 2/3 of the total volume. Once topping absorbs moisture from the concrete (it will be seen by the darkening of the surface), made the first rough grout betonozaglazhivayuschey machine with a disc or floating blades. Upon its completion, should immediately add the remaining 1/3 of the topping, so that he could soak up moisture from the cement milk to water evaporation. Once the mixture is saturated with moisture immediately proceed to the second rough grout (the same as described above).
    During rough grouting concrete strength gradually increases. At a time when the human foot leaves a trace depth of about 1 mm, it is necessary to start to the finish grout. It is carried out finishing trowel blades.
     
    Consumption topping depends on the technical conditions and loads on the floor and is:
    • while light and medium load: 3 – 5 kg/m2;
    • for medium and high load: 5 – 8 kg/m2.
      Minimum flow rate for colored toppings from 5 kg/m2.

    There are 3 main types of expansion joints in the concrete screed:

                      insulation joints;
                      contraction joints;
                      construction joints

    Insulation seams are arranged along the walls, around columns and around the foundations for equipment in order to eliminate the transmission of deformations of building structures in the floor screed. This is done by laying the insulating material along the structures of the building just before pouring the concrete mix.

    Contraction joints are necessary in order to prevent a chaotic cracking ties in the process of hardening. They allow you to create in concrete direct plane slack. As a result, cracks buckle in a predetermined direction. They can be cut along the axes of the columns and dock with the angles of joints extending around the perimeter columns. Maps floor formed by shrink joints should be possible square. Or alternatively map length must not exceed a width of more than 1.5 times. The general rule – the smaller the map, the less likely chaotic cracking.
    Construction joints are arranged where the day's work was finished by paving. Form ties edge structural weld is usually made on the basis of a thorn in the groove can be used sleepers (rail), laid across the weld. Reiki must be installed in the middle of the depth of the screed at right angles to the seam. Since construction joints often operate as shrinkage (they allow small horizontal progress, but not vertical), it is desirable to match the structural weld shrinkage.
     
    To ease cleaning and maintain the integrity of the edges of the seam when traffic loads, cut the seams must be sealed. This is to protect the seam from the ingress of water and corrosive environments, as well as the blockage.
    Type of sealant depends on load and operating conditions. For example, where the floors are often subjected to wet cleaning, and must withstand heavy loads, sealants preferred solid enough to support the joint edges and prevent spalling and plastic enough to withstand a slight opening and closing the seam. The most appropriate sealant in this situation is emfimastika PU-40.
    Before sealing seam must be cleaned of dust and debris by blowing with compressed air, mechanical brushing or using a sandblasting machine.
     
    In cases where the surface of the high demands for strength and abrasion, dry recommended hardening mixture of cement with the addition of quartz, corundum or metal chips, wherein increased hardness and abrasion resistance. This hardener is applied directly to the fresh concrete and overwritten bladed machines. Make a concrete surface reaches M600.
    Work carried out in two stages: first in the fresh-lined concrete rubbed special color reinforcing structure, and then for an additional dedusting is applied hardening impregnation Ashford Formula with similar water consistency and thus, evenly distributed over the surface of the concrete screed spray or brush it penetrates the concrete to 3-4 mm. Since the surface is stabilized, and generation of cracks is minimized. Furthermore, Ashford Formula binds salts in the concrete matrix. This is very important because it is salt cause the appearance of dust.
    40-45 minutes after application to a concrete surface impregnation gelation occurs. She watered to dissolve and further infiltrate the tie.
    To carry out the impregnation of the surface of the concrete floor structure Ashford Formula be when concrete attains sufficient strength to take light foot traffic (usually the day after the installation).
    The use of the composition of Formula Ashford floor surface and becomes substantially hardened tightness against moisture and chemical solutions. The hardness of the top layer of concrete is increased by 40%, impact strength – 13%, abrasion resistance – 30%.
     
    The main problem in this case is the present condition of the floor surface: explicit and implicit presence of structural defects (cracks, chips, dents, sinks), the presence of a weak surface layer or any covering. In this case, the repair can be used a complex system of « RetroPleyt », which can eliminate all of the above defects. It belongs to the chemical hardening of the surface materials. The treated concrete floor it has improved resistance to moisture and most chemicals. RetroPleyt does not change the quality and texture of the surface. Note that obtaining a good decorative kind depends on the degree of surface preparation. Start to exploit this sex can be had in a day after coating impregnation.
      perform the following range of activities:
    • resurfacing of the old concrete floor to a depth of 10 mm;
    • Grinding and polishing is done with mosaic and milling machine for the concrete. Existing cracks « embroidered » and filled repair compounds;
    • dust removal and washing polished floor;
    • dedusting impregnation of concrete and reinforcing composition RetroPleyt. Before applying the impregnation of the concrete floor must be clean, cold water soak;
    • cleaning and removal of residues from the surface of the screed impregnation RetroPleyt with water, hemp and rags.
      When repairing old concrete floor, be aware that even if the differences in height of the existing concrete floor higher than 2 cm, and there are very many cracks, then, as a rule, his recovery becomes unprofitable. In this case, a much more economical and efficient to perform a new concrete floor.
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